John wrote to me and asked if I would suggest gear to help them start a recording studio from scratch on a budget of $3,000. I enjoy an audio challenge and thought my reply may help others as well.
Here’s the criteria I was given to work with:
- The cost should not exceed $3,000 by much. The budget is not a rigid $3,000, but that’s a realistic goal.
- The $3,000 would be spent over a year.
- I should offer suggestions for future additions that take the cost up to about $10,000 in future years.
- The folks starting the studio intend to keep growing, learning and investing above $3,000 in future years.
- Instruments to record in their first gigs are Keyboard, violin, bass, acoustic guitar and anywhere from 1-15 vocalists.
- The studio will be in a fixed location, but there isn’t yet any formal acoustic treatment.
- The client would like to have a computer dedicated to studio work.
- The client will do this from their home as a ministry to musicians from their church. They will record the musicians free of charge.
- My own stipulation – I prefer to only recommend gear that will still be useful even if the studio grows to a million dollar facility.
- Also my own stipulation – I have no question that I could make records that play on the radio with this gear.
Mac Mini – $699 from Apple
I’m recommending a Mac for a couple reasons. First, Mac OS doesn’t have a registry like Windows. They tend to keep running at the same speed over years of time where PC’s get slower over time due to registry bloat. Second, most professional studios you visit will probably be using a Mac for recording, so you’ll be ahead of the curve if you ever have to work with someone else’s gear.
I selected the Mac Mini because it fits the budget and will do a great job. Also, it has Thunderbolt ports, which offer a vast speed improvement over every other way of connecting to a computer. Even if you don’t fully use the capability at first, you are likely to want Thunderbolt eventually.
The only issue I have with the $699 model is the hard drive speed. 5400 is not advised for audio production. I would greatly prefer this computer have the 1TB fusion drive, but that will put us a little over budget. If you can swing it, spend the extra $200 for the fusion drive.
A later step will be to add an external Thunderbolt drive for your audio files.
Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) Software
Pro Tools 11 – See price below bundled with hardware from Sweetwater Sound
Every DAW comes with a learning curve. It can take years to build up the knowledge and skill to operate a DAW like a Yoda blackbelt. You might as well put all that effort into the tool selected by the majority of professional recording studios. I have tried many since the mid 90’s and found Pro Tools to offer the best reliability, most efficient workflow and greatest compatibility with other studios.
You’re also going to need competent support to help answer questions. No other DAW offers as many helpful YouTube videos to help you learn. Also Sweetwater Sound in Indiana is well known for their post sale support.
Pre Amps and Analog to Digital (A/D) Converter
MBox Pro (bundled with Pro Tools) – $999.99 from Sweetwater Sound
Apple Firewire to Thunderbolt Adapter – $28.00 from Apple
This is what your mics will plug into. The pre-amps amplify the weak analog mic signals up to line-level and then the converters change the analog audio to digital data the computer can manipulate and store.
There are a lot of pre-amp/converter options and they can run up into the tens of thousands of dollars. I chose this specific brand and model for you because it provides enough channels, gets you some decent sounding converters and comes bundled with Pro Tools 11. It’s the bundle I’m after and it’s really quite a good deal if you look at what the items cost separately. Keeps you in budget also.
The Thunderbolt to Firewire adapter is needed because the converter only comes with a firewire port and the Mac Mini computer offers thunderbolt or USB. Thunderbolt is preferred over USB.
1 Shure SM 57 – $69 on Ebay
2 Audio Technica AT4040’s – $234 each on Ebay. Buy 2.
I won’t claim these are the ultimate mics for the anticipated sound sources. However, they are within budget, will do an excellent job and will continue to be useful no matter how large your studio grows.
AT 4040’s are condenser mics and pretty good for solo vocals that are not strident or screechy. They are fantastic on acoustic guitar, acoustic piano and as main stereo or spot mics for choir. I have also used them very successfully on many orchestral instruments like strings, woodwinds, lower brass or percussion.
On the downside, the 4040’s are heavier than small diaphragm condensers (SDC’s), so some attention is in order to make sure your mic stand doesn’t topple over. Use a mic stand with metal legs so there is enough weight to keep the mics safe.
SM-57’s are best known as the ideal mic for snare drums and electric guitar cabinets. As a dynamic mic, the 57 offers excellent rear rejection and the “proximity effect” that is a characteristic of all dynamic mics. Proximity effect = tone control. In other words, you can change how the lower frequencies sound by simply moving the mic closer to, or farther from, the sound source. Rear rejection means it’s likely to be a better choice in rooms that are not acoustically ideal. I would use this on strident tenors and screechy sopranos, violin (depending on the violin), accordion, trumpet and on almost anything if there are loud electronic instruments nearby. The SM-57 would be my desert island mic, I think.
Don’t ever be embarrassed to use an SM-57. This is the mic used by the White House Communications Agency. It’s been on the lecterns of all US presidents since Lyndon B Johnson first used one in 1965. I once selected this mic as my second overall favorite in a blind listening test against a slew of other mics. My close but first choice costs $25,000. And the SM-57 can be used to drive nails if you don’t have a hammer! (kidding but it is very rugged). It sounds great, is built like a tank and holds it’s value for resale.
As always, pre-amp pairing, distance from the sound source and room acoustics all play into what mic will work best, but these have proven to be useful over and over for me.
10 Pack of 25′ XLS mic cables – $99.99 from GLS Audio
It may seem extreme to suggest 10 cables with only three mics, but they can get used up quickly. I have found it most versatile to invent in mic XLR mic cables and then use adapters on the ends when I need other cables. New studios tend to get reconfigured often, so I suggest investing first in cables you will likely still need regardless of what future direction you wish to go.
GLS brand cables in particular are a great deal. I use them for all my location recordings because they are well constructed. But they are also reasonably inexpensive so it’s not as painful if a stage hand kills one by rolling a grand piano over it (actually mine have survived grand pianos).
K&M telescoping boom – $74.95 from Amazon.com
K&M stands are all metal and have a metal base. Be sure the end of the boom arm has the 5/8″ threads used in the US and not 3/8″ threads common in the EU.
I rarely encounter a major league professional recording company that doesn’t use K&M mic stands. Once I started using them, I’ve not bought any other kind since. Quite simply, they are reliable over years. The others I have used are not. Do date, I have not yet had a K&M stand break and I have hauled them all over the place.
Mic Pop Filter
Metal Wind Pop Filter – $12.99 from Ebay
When you put a vocalist in front of a mic, you usually need a pop filter. I find the metal screen filters hold up and work the best. This kind of pop filter also works with any kind of microphone and also allows you to control the distance from the mic.
Sony MDR-7506 – $56 from Ebay
Both you and the musicians will need a way to hear the previously recorded instrumental tracks during tracking of new instruments or vocals. I have found the Sony MDR-7506 headphones to be quite durable. They do tend to boost high frequencies a little, but musicians seem to like it and it helps accentuate the rhythm of the song to help keep the musicians timing in sync.
Auratone 5C – $350.22 on Ebay
I can see this being the most controversial recommendation I make. Let me see if I can make a compelling case.
The goal of mixing is to make the song sound good on lots of different sound systems. When it does, the mix is said to “translate well”. Auratone monitors, though small, are frequently relied on to help mix engineers quickly dial in a mix that translates well to the kinds of systems end-consumers are likely to be listening on. These will NOT be your final monitors. But they will help you get started and you are likely to keep checking mixes on them no matter how big your studio grows. Feel free to choose more full range monitors, but I can guess you will probably end up selling them for a financial loss later.
|Apple Thunderbolt to Firewire adapter||$28.00|
|metal wind pop filter||$12.99|
|10 pack of GLS||$99.99|
|Avid Pro Tools + Mbox Pro||$999.99|
|Sony MDR 7506||$56.00|
|Sony MDR 7506||$56.00|
Grand Total: 2,989.09
Notes and Tips
It should be noted that this is only one possible approach. Another perfectly valid option would be to use the $3,000 to buy time in a well established studio. Watching an experienced engineer work could save you years of learning curve.
A list of equipment could be compared to a list of paint colors and brushes. In the hands of a skilled artist, a great work of art can be created. But talent, skill and a compelling subject are all needed for a painting to be considered beautiful. Audio gear is merely a tool in the hands of an artist. Great tools help, but greatness will only come with practice.
I also need to note that there are some important items you will want to consider right away or at least sooner rather than later as additional funds become available. For example:
- data backups
- acoustic treatment of your tracking and mixing space
- more versatile monitoring options for the musicians
- headphone extender cables
- a MIDI interface for a keyboard
- a control surface for mixing
Tip – Buy most things used. Resale value is important, especially if you are just dipping your toe in the water.
Tip – Analog gear holds its value the best.
Tip – Note what gear seems to hang around for decades. There’s a good reason classics become classics. They work!
Tip – Record groups in a church auditorium. Until the walls in your permanent recording space can be treated with acoustic foam and diffusion panels, the larger space will benefit your sound. Specifically, the harsh early reflection waves won’t be as bad.
I would love your feedback and will tweak the post if you can persuade me. Also, if you would like to receive my future updates, please sign up for my list.
Thanks for reading!
I could hear defeat in his voice as he described being the new music director at a small church. Eric (not his real name) wanted to know if I could come down on a Saturday morning and tell them how to fix their sound problems. I asked a few questions and we set a date.
When I arrived. the pastor invited me in to his office. He sighed and then began to list the problems that had been having. He told me of regular complaints from the congregation about volume being too high or low and the sound “not having a good quality”. Also, the platform dwellers were not hearing what they needed in the monitors. The usual stuff really. I took notes so I would remember to address every problem. But I knew 80% or the problems would be solved with one change.
We finished our meeting and headed over to the church sound room. You’ve seen them. Maybe you have one. It’s a room in the back of the auditorium where all the sound equipment is set up and operated. And placing the mixer in that room was the cause of probably 80% of their problems.
I will explain, but first I need to introduce one term that will make it easier to communicate. The term is ‘Front of House’. This is a weird industry standard term like Accounts Payable is in accounting. It is abbreviated FOH and means the position where the sound guy sits who is mixing for the live audience (as opposed to mixing for a radio or internet listener, which would be called a “media mix”).
Why putting FOH in a room was the causing most of the problems:
1. You have to hear the room
This is key: Mixing for a live audience involves a handful of sound sources
- There is acoustic noise in the room. These are sounds you can hear when the sound system is off. Some can be significantly loud, like a trumpet section or drum cymbals.
- The room itself will resonate when certain notes (frequencies) are sounded. The room is actually amplifying those frequencies; making them louder. At the same time, some other frequencies may not be getting through well at all. As sound waves bounce off of surfaces, some will collide just right and cancel each other out, making them quieter.
- There are noises in the room from the audience, air conditioner, traffic outside, etc. The volume of the FOH mix needs to allows sound sources to be heard above the noise floor.
- If there is singing, you should sing a bit to make sure the instruments are not making it impossible for the audience to hear themselves singing. But you have to be in the auditorium yourself for it to work.
- And of course, the sound system joins with these other sound sources as one contributor.
Mixing FOH from inside a sound room is like painting a portrait while wearing a blindfold.
2. The FOH person mixing should be as engaged as anyone on the platform
Put another way, the mic should always be turned up on time. And by “on time”, I mean before the person on the platform starts speaking, singing or playing into it. There can be a lot happening and the FOH operator needs to be on it. I’m tough in this, but not having a mic turned up on time is embarrassing for the FOH operator, frustrating for the person trying to be heard and a distraction for everyone in the audience. Attempting to mix without the ability to hear is bad enough. But I’ve also found the relative isolation of the room makes it much easier for distracting conversations. It is important for the FOH mix operator to be as in-tune with every moment of the event as everyone on the platform. Simply no other person has as much impact on what is heard.
3. The FOH mix operator should not be concerned about the media mix
This goes along with not being distracted but I wanted to break this down even further. A media mix is a mix intended for an audience that will listen without being in the room. Examples would be radio, podcast, live web stream or CD recording. Media mixing requires a nearly opposite approach than mixing for live audience. The media mix operator has a goal of providing a sense of the room and live audience feel without having the acoustic and room sounds automatically mixed in. Acoustic and room sounds must be added via strategic mic placement and mixing. And a media mix SHOULD be in a room, though it is still important to have a great view of the platform (or video monitors).
Sometimes I am in situations where I have to do both. My solution is always to mix for the live audience but send direct outputs from the console to a multitrack digital recorder that I take back to the studio for post production in a treated environment. Get the best of both worlds that way.
4. The FOH mix operator needs to see the audience and stage well
If people are covering their ears and glaring at the sound operator because it’s too loud, it would be good to be able to see that. Also, the FOH mix operator must be able to see all of the stage well so cues are not missed.
My advice – If you have a sound room now, keep it! But...
Placing the FOH mix position in an enclosed room won’t fix every audio problem, but I dare say it will offer one of the greatest improvements possible. My advice would be, if you have a sound room now, keep it. Make it the media mix location. Buy a mic splitter, snake and another mixer that will become your FOH mixer. Place the FOH mixer out with the audience, ideally about two-thirds of the way back in the auditorium and not under a balcony.
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The quick answer is: Probably not, but you may already have a room that will accomplish your goal.
This question came to me from a trumpet player that was looking for a way to practice without disturbing others.
There are three principles we will draw on to understand the direction needed:
- Sound proofing is achieved via isolation and not absorption. Most people mistake the zig zaggy foam they see on studio walls as providing isolation. Foam has another purpose (absorption) and doesn’t really help much at all to keep sounds in or out of a room.
- Higher sounds (frequencies) bounce off solid objects like walls and floors and glass. Lower sounds transmit through typical walls. Therefore, the steps to achieve sound proofing are determined by the frequency range of the sound source. Isolating a flute is much easier than isolating a kick drum because with a flute you can go into a typical bedroom and close the door. An kick drum can transmit through the floor and ground to be heard a block away.
- The rigidness, thickness and spacing of the barriers (walls, doors, windows, air space) are factors in sound isolation. Solid concrete walls will isolate more volume at a lower frequency than sheet rock because concrete is more rigid and vibrates less. And sheet rock will be more effective than glass.
Let’s look at a few specific examples of how to isolate various sound sources for rehearsing. I will list them from easiest and cheapest to most difficult.
Since higher sounds will bounce off of walls and the energy of quieter sounds dissipates quickly, a flute player can typically attain practice isolation by simply going into a bedroom and closing the door. If the bedroom is really close to those you don’t wish to disturb, you may need to go to a bedroom that is farther away. A flute will not produce sounds low enough to transmit through typically constructed walls and doors. Note that the slightest crack (like under the door) will allow sound to pass through.
Trumpet, vocals, violin
The volume produced by a trumpet or vocalist makes those sound sources a little more difficult to isolate. But the relatively high frequency range still works in our favor. The key is to dissipate the sound before it escapes to the ears of people nearby. One tool we use in the studio to accomplish dissipation of loud sound sources is a room within a room. The air between the rooms does a marvelous job of absorbing and further attenuating the sound. It isn’t practical for most trumpet players or vocalists to build additional structure, but you may already have a bathroom or walk-in closet that offers the option to put two doors & walls between you and the family. If that doesn’t work, practicing in the car will demonstrate how well this works.
Trombone, Tuba, Electric bass
Instruments that produce low sounds require a room within a room and also physical isolation from the floor. A platform on foam can help. In my studio, the floor joists were constructed on U-shaped thick rubber that prevents low notes from transmitting through the “floated” floor to the concrete below.
Auralex makes a drum platform designed to decouple the drums from the structure. http://www.auralex.com/product/hoverdeck/ It’s not a magic bullet by any means, but can be the difference in how many neighbors you share your rehearsal with.
Publishing early to help a friend. More to come.
If you have questions, I would be glad to try to help. Also, if you would like to receive my future blog updates, please sign up for my list.
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